“Smart Terminal Security and User Cognition Special Report” is officially released | The third bullet: user cognition discovery

Report background

2015 is the first year of B-end service. Using low-cost software + system to improve standardization and process can greatly improve efficiency, replace manpower, save resources, and become a new choice for more and more enterprises. Security is associated with B-side software and systematic services. Smart terminal security naturally exists with it, but it is ignored and separated. In 2018, the concept of “T2B2C” became popular, simply put: through technology to promote industrial transformation, so as to better serve consumers. Everyone’s focus is not directly on the C-end, but on the C-end by empowering the B-end. In the “T2B2C” chain of smart terminal security, the voices of the C-side are indispensable, even if these voices are not strongly cohesive. Listen to the real voices of C-end users and commit to a safer and better smart terminal security environment. The Roar Security Industry Research Institute designed the “Smart Terminal Security User Survey” for this purpose, aiming to understand several core issues from the C side:

Among smart terminal devices, which ones are likely to cause information insecurity?

What kind of insecure smart terminals have users experienced?

From the perspective of users, who should guard the security of smart terminals?

What are the necessary security capabilities from the user perspective?

What security product features are users most looking forward to?

What are users’ biggest concerns about the security of smart terminals?

report found

Core finding of the report 1: Over 40% of users believe that the overall level of security of smart terminals is average

In the current overall scoring situation of smart terminal security (1 is the lowest score and 10 is the highest score), according to the research findings of the Roar Security Industry Research Institute, 85.1% of the participating researchers believe that the current smart terminal security is between 5 and 8 points ( 10 is a full score); more than 40% of users scored 5-6 points, of which, 6 points accounted for the most, reaching 20.6%; 5 points (excluding 5 points) users accounted for 24.8%; for smart terminals Those who are most dissatisfied with safety, that is, those who scored 1-2 points, accounted for 5.7%, and the most satisfied, that is, those who scored 9-10 points were only 4.3%.

The Roar Security Industry Research Institute believes that the overall situation of smart terminal security is not optimistic at present. Although after more than ten years of development, the essential development of smart terminal security is still relatively slow. If it has not been overcome, the user’s security awareness has not been effectively improved.

The second core finding of the report: Most users tend to protect the security of smart terminals with multiple parties and jointly build a security barrier

According to the research findings of the Howard Security Industry Research Institute, in terms of the division of intelligent security guarding responsibilities, the hardware equipment vendors, software service providers, cloud computing vendors, sales channel vendors, users/consumers, terminal security providers, government-related Among the options of administrative agencies and enterprise security departments, 72.3% of users prefer software service providers, 65.2% of users prefer hardware equipment vendors, 65.2% of users prefer terminal security providers, and 48.9% of users prefer government-related administrative agencies. For departments/institutions, 43.3% of users prefer cloud computing vendors, and only 24.8% of users think that they need to be the guardians of smart security.

Roar Security Industry Research Institute believes that: At present, the division of full responsibilities for smart terminal security products is relatively unclear, and the lack of legal and regulatory definitions makes fewer manufacturers consider security protection issues at the beginning of product design. Judging from the data, most users tend to assume that the security of smart terminals is mainly the joint responsibility of hardware developers, software developers, network security service providers, and the government. But how should a responsibility-sharing model be established? Can this implementation model bring real security? In addition, according to the survey results, users believe that the security problem of smart terminals is becoming more and more serious, but their own awareness of being a guardian is relatively weak. Only less than 1/4 of users think that they also need to be guardians of smart terminal security. In fact, based on the concept of zero trust, users’ smart terminal products and the data assets generated by them should have important protection rights and interests. It is believed that with the deepening and development of smart terminal security, the contradiction between individual users’ security awareness and practice will gradually Zoom out, for this reason, the Roaring Security Industry Research Institute gives some suggestions:

Security awareness training, popularizing education by means of public welfare;

Multiple parties provide more friendly methods, so that users can truly choose by themselves;

Increase legislation, earnestly protect the interests of users, and strike hard at illegal and illegal activities.

The third core finding of the report: Safety and respect are the core needs of users and the original intention of the entire ecosystem

According to the research findings of the Roar Security Industry Research Institute, people’s concerns about the security of smart terminals can be divided from the perspective of users, products, and supervision. From the user’s point of view, it is specifically reflected in worries about their own data/information leakage, data loss, data being maliciously monitored, and property damage. Concerns from the perspective of enterprise products include: product instability, insecurity, R&D security, cost issues, not smart enough, viruses cannot be scanned, and repairs are not timely, etc.; from the perspective of regulatory concerns, specifically include smart terminals Security checks, detections, system attacks, lack of relevant accountability mechanisms, etc.

Roar Security Industry Research Institute believes that when extracting keywords that users worry about feedback: data, privacy, and security are the words that appear most frequently. If summed up from the perspective of users, the security of smart terminals boils down to two points:

Ensure data security;

Protect user privacy.

This reflects the user’s need for safety and respect in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory. The security of smart terminals is very complicated, but it is also very simple. The complexity lies in the fact that many practitioners have thought of many methods and taken many detours to ensure it, but with little success, and can only hope that there is no real opponent. It is simple because you have walked a lot, but you have forgotten the way you came, the past you have walked, and your original intention. Everyone’s efforts, the original intention is only the four words of safety and respect. If every action, every improvement, and every direction ask yourself, whether it helps users achieve more security, and whether it can make users feel better about the benefits brought by products and derivatives. Respect, the real security of such smart terminal security may come!

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[Data Law]IMF: Tax Challenges and Responses in Asia’s Digital Era

IMF: Tax Challenges and Responses in Asia’s Digital Era

Translated/Jiang Yuxi, a postgraduate student at Beijing Normal University School of Law

Digitalization in Asia is pervasive, unique and evolving. Internet users in Asia far outnumber other regions, so digitization in Asia is characterized by its sheer scale. This facilitates the development of e-commerce in large markets under those international standards. They are underpinned by innovative payment systems and feature the participation of large corporations. The mega-enterprises here include large-scale, home-grown and highly digitalized enterprises (e-commerce giants) whose scale threatens US multinational enterprises (MNEs). There are opportunities for their future growth, because there are still large-scale users who have not yet connected to each other.

Digitization creates new tax challenges, and existing regulations can appear unfair. Critics have pointed out that the existing income tax system fails to empower some jurisdictions to impose taxes. Highly digitalized companies in such regions have large customer bases that create value but are not registered in these regions. The increasing number of digital enterprises may also be associated with more intangible assets (such as trademarks and patents). These intangible assets are more difficult to value but easier to transfer. This feature ensures that digital enterprises can transfer profits under the current rules. This especially affects the economies of small and underdeveloped regions. The link between digitization and taxation does not stop at income tax. The issues raised involve VAT issues on digital services, property rights of private information, and the use of digital technology in tax design and revenue management.

While the overall revenue impact is likely to be modest, global tax reform proposals could create regional winners and losers. Providing new taxation rights for market countries at the expense of the interests of the country of residence, the idea comes from discussions under the first pillar of the OECD Inclusive Framework (IF), which will change the geography of tax revenues for Asian multinational companies distributed. Investment centers and low-tax areas are more likely to lose income because fewer interests are going to favor them. Countries that are not home to the headquarters of large multinational corporations but are the major user groups of these corporations are more likely to gain revenue from reallocation. For countries with both large markets and the tax residence of their large multinational corporations, the results are ambiguous. For example, home countries of Asian tech giants would lose revenue if companies had to pay more taxes in other countries where they expanded. Such a revenue impact would not be apparent under the current proposal. But over time, as the pace of digitization picks up, the impact of this revenue realignment will increase.

Digitization is putting increasing pressure on the century-old international tax system, which could be addressed in the medium term by more fundamental reforms. The reforms now being considered by the OECD would be an important step towards more comprehensive reforms in the future. Finance and taxation experts are discussing the system around issues such as formulaic apportionment and residual profit distribution. These approaches would lead to a greater redistribution of tax revenues across countries, with investment centers expected to suffer the greatest losses. At the same time, the proposals would bring about great simplification and a closer link between where profits are made and where products are made and sold. Based on this design, these reforms will also ease the pressure of international tax competition and provide space for multinational companies to increase their income, including increasing corporate income tax rates according to the wishes of countries.

Unilateral tax measures adopted by many Asian countries, such as digital service taxes (DSTs), have had little impact on revenues. A digital services tax is simpler than corporate income tax schemes in terms of design and implementation, but may introduce risks of double taxation and trade retaliation distortions. In taxing gross revenue, a DST ignores the profitability of tech giants and is therefore less efficient than alternative profit tax reform options. Countries with domestic tech giants would find a DST less attractive because their income is already taxed under the current corporate income tax regime. A relatively narrow gross revenue tax base would also result in limited revenues – generally estimated at 0.01% to 0.02% of GDP – meaning that the introduction of a digital services tax would need to be weighed against other tax priorities. That said, revenues from DST may have more room to rise in the future, given the dynamism of the strongly growing digital economy, which has been accelerated again by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Expanding the scope of value-added tax (VAT) collection to more efficiently access e-commerce and digital services could generate large short-term revenue and other benefits. Collecting VAT on e-services and the digital economy from abroad can help countries raise unilateral revenue. The harmonization of VAT on all digital imports also provides a platform for domestic and foreign suppliers and products and services, thereby improving efficiency. The expected revenue impact of this effective implementation would be far greater than a digital services tax or the current OECD Pillar 1 globalization reform proposals, especially given the reliance on the market as a third-party source of information and as a taxing agency to expand value added Indirect returns from the tax base. There is now a lot of room to advance digital import VAT reforms to support compliance management for residents and implement corporate tax reforms that transfer taxation rights to non-resident market economy countries.

For many Asian countries, additional tax efforts are necessary to meet their revenue mobilization needs. Global tax reform will move towards a combination of destination-based income taxation and a global minimum tax rate (pillar two of the OECD Inclusive Framework), which will ease pressure on global tax competition and allow countries to increase corporate income tax rates if needed. Funding future spending needs will also require more effort in mobilizing revenue. This requires broadening the tax base by eliminating tax holidays, tax exemptions and other tax incentives. These measures, common in developing Asia, are often inefficient or ineffective, or even redundant, under a global minimum tax. Digitization of tax administration to better facilitate revenue flow by combating tax evasion and broadening the tax base for corporate tax and VAT. But such comprehensive tax reform is beyond the scope of this article.


The impact of digitalization is sweeping through Asia, and the impact continues to spread in the aftermath of the new crown epidemic. Digitization has spread far beyond the information communication and technology (ICT) sector, while widespread use of the Internet underpins e-commerce, fintech, online finance and other services. In addition to companies selling goods and services through their own websites, online platforms and marketplaces have sprung up, linking businesses to consumers, and consumers to consumers. Such business models are supported by cutting-edge technologies including artificial intelligence, machine learning and big data. Local players have become major players in the market, especially in large market countries such as China, Japan, and Indonesia, and compete with US multinational enterprises (MNEs) operating there. The greater potential for future growth in internet usage and the reduction in face-to-face activities during the COVID-19 pandemic will further drive the growth of Asia’s large digital players in the next few years, as well as the adoption of digital technologies throughout the economy.

The digitalization journey varies across Asian countries due to differences in demographics, geography, and stage of economic development. G20 economies such as China, Japan and South Korea have large ICT sectors, including manufacturing, as well as well-established, locally headquartered and highly Electronic e-commerce and online service businesses. India and Indonesia are also rapidly developing e-commerce and online service markets while local companies are emerging. Although ICT-led manufacturing is not yet as prevalent, advanced service-based economies such as Australia and New Zealand are already highly digitalized. In addition, Asia also has some hubs for infocomm business and fintech, such as Singapore. In contrast, developing Asian economies have low rates of internet access and are therefore less likely to see large, locally-headquartered digital businesses.

The ability of highly digitalized businesses to sell across borders without a physical presence poses a challenge to traditional corporate income tax (CIT) rules. These rules give the country where the company is headquartered and the country where the company has a permanent establishment, such as a factory or storefront, the right to tax corporate interests. For highly digital businesses that transact online across borders, this may mean that the country of sale (market country) and the country of online users do not have the right to tax corporate income. For countries that have taxing powers under the current rules, they also face challenges.Because the assets of highly digitized businesses are more concentrated in

Intangible assets (such as intellectual property). Intangible assets are more easily transferred to group affiliates located in low-tax jurisdictions, thereby shifting profits out of high-tax countries.

Selling products and services online across borders also puts pressure on value-added tax (VAT) collection. There is general consensus across countries that VAT should be paid where the final consumer resides (for an example see the OECD 2017 VAT/GST Guidelines). But this is becoming increasingly difficult to achieve in the digital economy, because the collection of VAT mainly relies on locally registered enterprises to pay. It is more difficult to collect VAT on, for example, the purchase of online streaming services from non-resident suppliers.

Under the auspices of the G20/OECD Inclusive Framework (IF), multilateral discussions on how to address the challenges of taxing income in the context of an increasingly digital economy took place. There are 139 member countries under the inclusive framework, including major Asian economies and many developing countries. Under the so-called pillar, a number of countries have adopted proposals to provide new ideas on taxation rights to market jurisdictions, thus trying to solve the problems surrounding taxation rights in the digital economy.

While awaiting permission for inclusive frameworks, several countries have already implemented digital service taxes (DSTs), particularly on sales by non-resident businesses to their residents. A digital services tax could take the form of a simplified withholding tax, (eg for online advertising), similar to the current taxation of cross-border technology services. Or it could take the form of a user-based turnover tax, whereby the value created by end-users of digital services within a given country is taxed.

This article illustrates how digitization is affecting Asian economies and their corporate income tax and value-added tax systems, analyzing the impact of proposed reforms. Based on IMF policy and analytical work in international taxation, this article contributes to the policy debate in the following ways: (1) An overview of digital trends in Asia and how it differs from other regions (p. Chapter 1); (2) examine the impact of multilateral and unilateral tax policy reforms aimed at taxing corporate income in a progressively digital economy (Chapter 2); (3) examine how best to address VAT challenges arising from online sales (Chapter 3). It is worth noting that the relationship between digitization and taxation, including issues of property rights in private information, the use of technology in tax design and revenue administration, is beyond the scope of this paper.

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Melexis Introduces New Cost-Effective Motorcycle Fuel Pump Controller MLX 80302

MLX 80302 helps manufacturers meet stringent environmental standards

Tessendello, Belgium, October 28, 2020 – Melexis, a global microelectronics engineering company, announces the MLX 80302, a powerful and cost-effective new motorcycle fuel pump controller to help manufacturers comply with increasingly stringent environmental regulations, Includes Indian BS-6 emission standards.

The MLX 80302 is a three-phase BLDC brushless DC motor controller IC with 2.6 A peak drive capability. This product is suitable for automotive and motorcycle pump applications with a battery voltage of 13 V and power up to 20 W. In addition, it is ideal for a variety of home appliance and industrial pump applications with regulated 24 V power supply up to 30 W.

The controller has a wide junction temperature range: -40°C to +150°C. With a 0.25 ohm half-bridge on-resistance driver, the MLX 80302 provides a powerful monolithic pump controller in a SOIC8 package. This product requires only reverse polarity protection and a decoupling capacitor, making it ideal for integration into pump connectors.

The MLX 80302 has a variety of integrated protection features including locked rotor, thermal protection, overvoltage protection, short circuit protection and current limiting. Motor control operation has been validated for robust operation with remote motor positioning in very noisy environments and has passed a range of tests including BCI as well as ignition coil noise injection. The MLX 80302 has a fast start-up (minimum 50 ms) and is very stable and reliable under both load and no-load conditions.

The MLX 80302 can be programmed via the I2C interface using a graphical interface GUI and all options are configurable via the on-chip EEPROM. With multiple PWM input options to choose from, the product can configure the motor startup process to reach the maximum target speed of the fuel pump in less than 60 ms even under pressure. The MLX 80302 is available in a SOIC8 exposed pad package.

Plug-and-play application and evaluation boards are available that allow the IC to be configured via the I2C interface using a graphical interface GUI.

About Melexis

Combining passion for technology with true engineering inspiration, Melexis designs, develops and delivers innovative microelectronic solutions that help designers translate ideas into applications for the best imaginable future. Melexis’ advanced mixed-signal semiconductor sensors and actuators address the challenges of integrating sensing, actuation and communication into next-generation products and systems to increase safety, improve efficiency and support sustainable sex and enhance comfort.

As a global leader in automotive semiconductor sensors, Melexis has leveraged its core experience in automotive Electronic chips to expand its product portfolio in sensors, actuators and wireless devices to meet applications in smart appliances, home automation, industrial and medical applications, etc. broad market demand. Melexis’ sensing solutions include magnetic sensors, MEMS sensors (pressure, TPMS, infrared), sensor interface ICs, optoelectronic single point and linear array sensors, and time-of-flight (ToF) sensors. Melexis’ driver IC product line includes advanced DC and brushless DC motor controllers, LED drivers and FET pre-driver ICs, and Melexis also has specialized technology and skills to provide Solutions for bridging wired (eg LIN, SENT) or wireless (RKE, RFID), allowing these components to communicate in a clear and fast way.

Headquartered in Belgium, Melexis employs more than 1,500 people in 20 offices around the world. The company is listed on Euronext Brussels (symbol: MELE).

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coming! 16 new careers are released, and there are new options for the future of electronics majors

Recently, the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, the State Administration for Market Regulation and the National Bureau of Statistics jointly released 16 new occupations to the society. This is the second batch of new occupations released since the 2015 edition of the “People’s Republic of China Occupational Classification Ceremony”, which can be divided into three categories according to occupational characteristics.

(The picture comes from the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security of the People’s Republic of China)

1. Technological innovation in the field of manufacturing and construction has spawned new occupations: intelligent manufacturing engineering technicians, industrial Internet engineering technicians, electrical and Electronic product environmental protection inspectors, drone installation and maintenance workers, railway comprehensive maintenance workers, prefabricated buildings Construction Worker;

2. The rapid development of the modern service industry has given birth to new occupations: chain operation managers, supply chain managers, online appointment delivery personnel, all-media operators, virtual reality engineering technicians, and artificial intelligence trainers;

3. The large demand for health care services has spawned new occupations: health care practitioners, respiratory therapists, birth defect prevention and control consultants, and rehabilitation assistive technology consultants.

Among them, intelligent manufacturing engineering technicians, industrial Internet engineering technicians, virtual reality engineering technicians, artificial intelligence trainers, electrical and electronic product environmental protection inspectors, rehabilitation assistance technology consultants, drone installation and maintenance workers, and railway comprehensive maintenance workers Other occupations are most related to electronics majors, and may be a new choice for future electronics professionals.

Occupation details are as follows:

(Organized by OFweek, click to enlarge)

What does the new career mean?

In the face of the current emergency epidemic environment, there is a shortage of medical staff, so new occupations derived from the large demand for health care services will become a popular direction at present. For example, “respiratory therapists” mainly use respiratory therapy equipment such as ventilators, spirometers, polysomnography devices, and nebulizers, and are engaged in the evaluation, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of cardiopulmonary and related organ functions, as well as health education, consultation Mentors, etc. This new coronary pneumonia happens to be a lung-related disease. “Respiratory therapists” are involved in the treatment and prevention work, which can efficiently assist doctors in treating patients, formulate appropriate and high-quality treatment plans, and improve the success of treatment for critically ill patients. Rate.

Affected by the epidemic, many industries have chosen to suspend production and production, which has also brought huge pressure on the operation recovery of enterprises and the upstream and downstream supply chains. Experts predict that as the epidemic gradually recedes, the modern service industry will usher in a wave of rebound. Therefore, occupations such as chain operation managers and supply chain managers will also become the “sweet pastry” of future enterprises.

In this epidemic, masks and protective clothing have become the most valuable resources. From the initial “hard to find a mask” to the recovery of supply, it can also be seen that the domestic intelligent manufacturing related industries have responded quickly to the national call. Whether it is now or in the future, intelligent manufacturing is the core of national development.

All in all, the emergence of new occupations brings more opportunities for people to realize their dreams, and also provides more talent support for the development of related industries.

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Certara acquires Pinnacle 21, a leader in standardization software for clinical data in medicine

Certara, Inc. (NASDAQ: CERT), a global leader in biomimicry, announced today that it has signed a definitive agreement to acquire Pinnacle 21 for $310 million in cash and stock. Pinnacle 21’s software tools are suitable for validating data for compliance with Clinical Data Interchange Standards Institute (CDISC) standards, which are required for submission of drug applications to the U.S. Drug Administration (FDA) and Japan’s Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) , which is also the preferred standard of China’s National Medical Products Administration (NMPA).

“We welcome Pinnacle 21 to Certara as we implement an innovative investment strategy to drive the use of biomimicry and increase the utilization of our end-to-end platform,” said Dr. William F. Feehery, CEO of Certara. 21’s complementary acquisition marks an important expansion of Certara’s biosimulation and regulatory software and technology-driven services. High-quality, standardized data is the foundation of biosimulation, machine learning and statistics. Pinnacle 21 is a leader in biopharmaceutical data fitting This business acquisition will create compelling opportunities as we integrate and expand our complementary offerings.”

Immediately after this acquisition, Certara will be a central player in the data standardization process throughout the drug development lifecycle. With the globalization of the biopharmaceutical industry and the development of wearable devices and other health technologies, the volume of data in clinical trials will continue to increase, and data standards will become increasingly complex and difficult to comply with. Efficient and precise analysis requires high-quality, standardized data. Pinnacle 21’s patented validation software creates consistent, compliant and high-quality datasets that reduce the risk of costly regulatory delays while increasing the speed and efficiency of drug development and time to market.

“Certara is an ideal partner for Pinnacle 21’s exceptional team and customer base,” said Max Kanevsky, founder and CEO of Pinnacle 21. “Both companies help customers collect, validate and analyze data for drug development. The key decisions of our company are informed to help clients pass regulatory approvals. The alliance with Certara can further strengthen the link between effective data and informed analytics. We are eager to integrate and expand our software platform to continue our mission of delivering faster for Patients bring life-saving treatments.”

Pinnacle 21 drives the data validation software market, especially for clinical trials, and the company has more than 130 corporate customers, including 22 of the top 25 biopharmaceutical companies by R&D spending, as well as FDA and PMDA data, along with Over 1000 organizations use its open source community software.

key transaction terms

The transaction has an enterprise value of $310 million, with Pinnacle 21 shareholders receiving $250 million in cash consideration and Certara stock valued at $60 million, subject to the terms of the agreement. Immediately after the transaction closes, it is expected to boost Certara’s top line, revenue growth rate and adjusted EBITDA margin.

The transaction, which has been unanimously approved by the boards of directors of Certara and Pinnacle 21, is expected to close early in the fourth quarter of 2021, subject to customary regulatory approvals and other closing conditions.

Webcast and Conference Call Details

Certara will host a conference call today, August 5, 2021 at 5:00 p.m. ET to discuss its second quarter 2021 financial results and the impact of the acquisition of Pinnacle 21. A webcast of the conference call will be available on the “Investors” section of the company’s website at https://ir.certara.com/. The webcast will remain on the website for approximately one year after the conference call.


Jefferies LLC is serving as financial advisor to Certara and Simpson Thacher & Bartlett is serving as legal advisor to Certara. Fairmount Partners is serving as financial advisor to Pinnacle 21 and Cozen O’Connor is serving as legal advisor to Pinnacle 21.

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China plans to vigorously develop the third-generation semiconductor industry, leading concept stocks to rise

According to foreign media citing people familiar with the matter, China plans to write its strong support for the development of the third-generation semiconductor industry into the “14th Five-Year Plan” being formulated to develop its own semiconductor industry and deal with the restrictions of the US government.

According to reports, during the period of 2021-2025, China plans to use the power of the whole country to provide extensive support for “third-generation semiconductors” in education, scientific research, development, financing, applications, etc., and strengthen research, education and financing, in order to achieve industrial independence.

Singularity Finance has consulted public information and learned that compared with traditional silicon materials, the third-generation semiconductors are mainly broadband semiconductor materials such as gallium nitride, silicon carbide, and zinc selenide, which are more suitable for manufacturing high temperature resistance, high voltage resistance, and high current resistance. The high-frequency and high-power devices can be widely used in 5G radio frequency chips, military radars and electric vehicles, and are also known as the “rising stars” of semiconductor materials.

In fact, semiconductors are widely used in integrated circuits, consumer electronics, communication systems and many other fields. With the development of science and technology, the market demand for semiconductor quality and quantity is increasing.

According to the statistics of China Customs, since 2015, the import volume and import value of integrated circuits in my country have been increasing year by year. In 2019, the import value of my country’s chips was 305 billion US dollars, which was 7.2 billion US dollars less than that in 2018, a year-on-year decrease of 2.3%; the cumulative export value of chips in 2019 was 101.65 billion US dollars, a year-on-year increase of 20.1%; The trade deficit reached 203.360 billion US dollars.

According to relevant data released by the State Council, China’s chip self-sufficiency rate was only about 30% in 2019, but the goal is to reach 70% in the next five years.

China strives to promote the development of semiconductor companies

Previously, due to China’s lack of attention to the semiconductor industry, the level of China’s entire semiconductor industry was far behind the world’s advanced level, and the entire industry was almost dependent on imports. Chinese semiconductor makers also rely heavily on U.S.-made chip design tools and patents, as well as key manufacturing technologies from U.S. allies.

However, with the deterioration of Sino-US relations in recent years, the US has continued to suppress Chinese technology companies, and it has become difficult for Chinese companies to obtain parts and chip manufacturing technology from overseas.

A few days ago, communication expert Xiang Ligang once said that the current international environment has changed, and the United States continues to use its dominant position in the global chip industry to block China. “The core industry of China must have the initiative and can no longer be controlled by others.

On August 4, the State Council issued the “Several Policies for Promoting the High-quality Development of the Integrated Circuit Industry and Software Industry in the New Era”, and formulated the introduction of finance and taxation, investment and financing, research and development, import and export, talents, intellectual property rights, market application, international cooperation, etc. 37 policy measures in eight aspects. And once again stressed that the integrated circuit industry and the software industry are the core of the information industry, and are the key forces leading a new round of technological revolution and industrial transformation.

In addition, the policy emphasizes the need to vigorously support eligible integrated circuit companies and software companies to list and raise funds at home and abroad, speed up the domestic listing review process, and implement preferential tax policies.

Industry windward concept stocks lead the rise

In recent years, semiconductor design companies such as Huawei HiSilicon and Ziguang Zhanrui, and semiconductor manufacturing companies such as SMIC and China Resources Micro have come to the fore, bringing a better ecological proportion to the domestic semiconductor industry structure. “The industry has gradually formed a “4-3-3” industrial structure.

At present, my country has made many breakthroughs in the field of chip design, and the level of chip design ranks second in the world. According to the statistics of the China Semiconductor Industry Association, the sales of my country’s chip design industry exceeded 300 billion yuan in 2019, accounting for 40.51% of the sales of the integrated circuit industry.

China’s integrated circuit industry has gradually matured, and the development of the industry has changed from technology-driven to application-driven. Although there are still many deficiencies in the domestic semiconductor industry, as the world’s largest manufacturing base and the largest application market for integrated circuits, the market potential is huge and it is expected to play more roles.

On September 4, in the A-share market, the third-generation semiconductor concept ushered in the air, and the concepts of semiconductors, chips, silicon carbide and gallium nitride became popular across the board. The semiconductor and integrated circuit sectors led the gains throughout the day. Several stocks such as Qianzhao Optoelectronics and Jucan Optoelectronics rose by 20%. The net sales of foreign capital exceeded 6 billion throughout the day.

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Software and hardware design of network switch based on AL101 chip and MCU

With the improvement of computer performance and the increase of communication volume, the traditional local area network has exceeded its own load more and more, and the switched Ethernet technology came into being, which greatly improved the performance of the local area network. Network switches can significantly increase bandwidth and can build geographically dispersed networks. Each port of the LAN switch can transmit information in parallel, safely and in real time, and has stable performance, flexible structure, easy installation and management, and can well meet the needs of enterprise networks and telecom operators for broadband access.

1 Introduction

With the improvement of computer performance and the increase of communication volume, the traditional local area network has exceeded its own load more and more, and the switched Ethernet technology came into being, which greatly improved the performance of the local area network. Network switches can significantly increase bandwidth and can build geographically dispersed networks. Each port of the LAN switch can transmit information in parallel, safely and in real time, and has stable performance, flexible structure, easy installation and management, and can well meet the needs of enterprise networks and telecom operators for broadband access.

2 Hardware Design of Network Switches

With the demand for security and high bandwidth in network applications, network switches are becoming more and more widely used. The switch adopts the ROX bus of the AL101 chip, and connects three 8-port switching chips to form a 24-port switch, which meets the user’s demand for multiple switching ports.

2.1 Circuit performance requirements

The high-speed PCB circuit board of the switch has relatively high requirements on EMC and ESD. It uses high-speed clocks of 75MHz and 50MHz. The precision of the crystal oscillator is less than 50PPM. At the same time, the clock needs to be sent to different chips through the clock distribution circuit. The phase difference between the distributed clocks is less than 2ns.

The switch has 24 10/100M adaptive ports, and each port can achieve wire-speed switching. According to user needs, the port can be set to 10/100M rate, full/half duplex, flow control, static MAC address, mirroring, VLAN, etc.

2.2 The principle block diagram of the switch

The switching technology of this switch adopts the store-and-forward mode, which is mainly composed of five parts: interface unit, switching unit, management unit, light Display unit and power interface unit. Its block diagram is shown in Figure 1.

After the RJ45 interface receives the data packet of the Ethernet frame structure, it is sent to the PHY (physical interface chip) after transformer isolation and impedance matching. In this chip, the conversion of the analog signal to the digital signal of the RMII interface is completed, and the link status is obtained. , conflict, information is too long, speed and other information.

The data enters the switching chip (composed of three chips, forming a loop through the ROX bus, which can complete the exchange of data between the three chips), the switching chip will obtain the destination address and source address of the data, and perform the Ethernet frame processing. Error checking. The switching chip saves the source address in its own MAC address table, and then matches the destination address with the address in the MAC address table to obtain the corresponding port to which the data will be forwarded. If the destination port is in the same switch chip, the data is taken from SGRAM and forwarded to the corresponding port; if the destination port is not in the same switch chip, the data is transmitted to the corresponding switch chip through the ROX bus, and then forwarded; If the corresponding destination address is not found in the MAC address table, the frame is forwarded to all ports belonging to the same VLAN except the source port or to a certain upstream port (related to the setting of the switch chip register). The Display of the light is given by the PHY. Through the display of the light, you can observe the working rate, connection and data transmission and reception of each port.

During each power-on or reset, the switch chip first reads the content of the external EEPROM to initialize and configure the switch chip registers. The content of the switch chip register can be read and written through the PC’s management program or the PC’s hyperterminal, so as to control or read the working configuration of the switch.

3 Software Design of Network Switch

The software of the whole network switch system includes the control software of the microcontroller, the EEPROM configuration data and the management program of the PC. The control software of the MCU mainly completes the reading and writing of the registers and the communication with the PC. Through this management unit, the switch can be configured into various working modes to meet the needs of different users.

The switch chip is connected to the EEPROM (24C02) through the I2C bus to save the configuration data. When the device is powered on or reset, the device will read these data from the EEPROM for system initialization. The management program of the PC is that the user connects the serial port of the PC with the system equipment, and can easily configure the system through the management program interface of the PC.

3.1 Software design of microcontroller control

The management unit is composed of a single-chip microcomputer and a serial port, and the registers of the EEPROM or the exchange chip are configured through the PC. The single-chip microcomputer mainly completes the reading and writing of registers and the communication with the PC. The serial port acts as a connection with the PC. There is also a level conversion chip between the microcontroller and the serial port to complete the connection between the microcontroller and the PC. conversion of signals. Through the management unit, the switch can be configured into various working modes to meet the needs of different users, such as: 10/100M rate setting, full/half duplex setting, flow control, static MAC address setting, mirror setting, broadcast storm control , VLAN settings, etc. The software flow of the microcontroller is shown in Figure 2.

The modules are described as follows:

main – the main program;
init_uart – serial port initialization;
delay – system delay;
helpMenu – help menu;
systemCheck – check the system device ID;
whict>:——command prompt (whict is the abbreviation of Wuhan Institute of Chemical Technology);
D——View the entire configuration data of the system;
E——Edit the configuration data of the system;
F——Configure and manage various functions of the switch;
R——Read the configuration data of the system;
W——The system saves the current configuration data to EEPROM;
L——Configuration of system static MAC address;
M – change the password of the system;
I——System software reset;
S – The system downloads the default configuration to the EEPROM.

3.2 Management program design of PC

The management program of the PC is programmed in VB language and has an easy-to-understand software interface. Users can easily configure network switches. The management program of the PC is shown in Figure 3, and the interface of the switch management software is shown in Figure 4.

4 Performance testing of network switches

The switch was tested for 12 hours at room temperature (25°C). The test instrument was Smartbits2000. A total of 4 items of permeability, delay, packet loss rate, and back-to-back were measured. The test results are listed in Table 1.

The Links:   FF900R12IE4 DD110F-160 IGBTMODULE

ScioSense launches a new gas sensor that is closest to human perception of harmful air quality

Eindhoven, The Netherlands, Jinan, China – December 9, 2020 – ScioSense, a leading manufacturer of environmental and flow sensors, today announced the launch of a new indoor air quality sensor, the ENS160, which uses sophisticated sensor fusion algorithms to calculate Measure output for more natural air cleaning than any other sensor on the market.

As a manufacturer of integrated environmental and flow sensors, ScioSense uses four separate, highly integrated MEMS micro-heated substrates to create a new multi-channel sensing architecture for its next-generation air quality sensor, and has developed multi-sensor fusion technology— The signals from each sensing element are fused while compensating for humidity effects.

This new technology is based on the industry’s leading automatic baseline correction, which automatically resets air quality thresholds to ensure that the ENS160 can reliably detect indoor air pollution levels and odor changes wherever it is located. An innovative multi-sensor fusion algorithm further improves the output accuracy of equivalent carbon dioxide (eCO2), which accurately detects carbon dioxide (CO2) exhaled by the human body, as well as a range of polluting or odorous gases from other activities.

With the advanced features unique to ENS160, the air quality indicators of air purification systems using this product more closely reflect the impact of pollutants and odors in the air on the occupants of indoor spaces. Systems such as ENS160-based air purifiers, on-demand controlled ventilation systems, range hoods and smart home hubs allow for more precise monitoring of indoor air. Users can enjoy clean and fresh air at any time, and at the same time avoid running air purification equipment under unnecessary conditions, eliminating the waste of money and energy.

The new miniature heating substrate design and intelligent operation control mode are also highly resistant to siloxane contamination, ensuring a long working life in any residential, commercial, professional indoor or vehicle cabin environment.

Dirk Enderlein, CEO of ScioSense, said: “When ventilation or air purification equipment stops operating because air quality monitoring systems fail to detect human body odor, or because air quality baselines are set too high, there can be practical consequences for occupants of indoor spaces. Impacts such as potentially depriving school students of their ability to concentrate on their studies, putting people at risk of long-term harm from pollution, and making our living spaces less suitable for work or leisure. ENS160 provides high broadband gas sensitivity and intelligence A unique combination of selectivity that allows ventilation and air purification systems to be used in the right way at the right time to improve people’s quality of life indoors.”

Three types of accurate air quality output:

The multi-element TrueVOCTM technology employed in the ENS160 is sensitive to oxidizing gases such as ozone that affect indoor air quality, as well as many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as toluene, ethanol, methane, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. The algorithm provided by the ENS160 outputs the following three measurements:

· Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC), based on the broad sensitivities of ENS160 to anthropogenic and anthropogenic VOCs;

eCO2, a commonly used surrogate for human occupancy density in indoor spaces;

· AQI (Air Quality Index), which provides various air quality indicators in line with international standards.

The ENS160 can also provide raw gas measurements to OEMs capable of developing proprietary algorithms.

Additionally, the ENS160 reduces warm-up time on first use and start-up time after each power-on, making the ENS160 the most responsive air quality sensor on the market, ideal for systems that require fast response times and expect a great user experience .

Available in a surface mount package measuring only 3 mm x 3 mm x 0.9 mm, the sensor is the smallest fully integrated, programmable air quality sensor on the market today, suitable for integration into highly space-constrained designs such as consumer products .

The ENS160 provides measured output values ​​to the host controller through a serial peripheral or I2C interface. Since all measurement algorithms for the sensor run on-chip, no additional processing is required on the host.

At the same time, ScioSense also provides an analog output version of the VOC gas sensor ENS145. This version is based on the same micro-hotplate technology as the ENS160 and is suitable for distributed system designs; where the central control host fully controls the measured output value obtained from the ENS145 gas sensor input.

CJ Deng, Vice President of Global Marketing, ScioSense, added: “The ScioSense gas sensor series products, with their excellent performance and stable and reliable performance, have been widely used by many well-known car manufacturers and smart home leading manufacturers around the world. Our customer base includes three German Large car manufacturers and many famous European air purifier brand manufacturers. The launch of ENS160 provides customers with a more accurate and easy-to-use air quality sensor, and the strong local technical support service team in China will also be based on customer needs. Assist customers to better monitor local air quality through algorithm optimization and other methods.”

Product samples and evaluation kits are available from ScioSense and authorized distributors in the first quarter of 2021 upon request.

The Links:   LQ9D011 DDB6U205N16L

Professional battery provides stable power for wireless IoT devices

[Introduction]At present, more and more Electronic products on the market are operated with batteries. Various batteries are used to provide stable power for the devices. Combined with various low-power wireless connection technologies, these devices can run digital months or even years. This article will introduce you to the development of battery technology, as well as the product characteristics of various professional batteries launched by Duracell.

Batteries convert chemical energy into electricity

A battery is a device that can convert pre-stored chemical energy into electrical energy to provide external electrical energy for equipment. Multiple battery packs can be connected in parallel, in series or in series and parallel to provide higher voltage and current. The history of batteries can be traced back to the ancient Iraqi era more than 2,000 years ago, and the first real modern battery was invented by Italian chemist Alessandro Volta.

The types of batteries can be divided into chemical batteries and nuclear batteries according to their materials. At present, chemical batteries are mainly used in daily life. Chemical batteries can be mainly divided into disposable batteries and rechargeable batteries according to their operating principles.

Disposable batteries are commonly known as “disposable” batteries and primary batteries, because after their power is exhausted, they cannot be recharged and can only be discarded. Common disposable batteries include carbon-zinc batteries, alkaline-manganese batteries, and lithium batteries, as well as zinc batteries, zinc-air batteries, zinc-mercury batteries, mercury batteries, hydrogen-oxygen batteries, and magnesium-manganese batteries.

Rechargeable batteries, also known as secondary batteries, have the advantage that they can be used repeatedly after charging. They can be fully charged and discharged more than 200 times or even 2500 times. The output current load capacity of rechargeable batteries is higher than that of most disposable batteries. , common types include lead-acid batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries, nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, etc.

In order to facilitate the adaptation between the battery and the device, except for some special batteries developed for specific products, the specifications and sizes of the batteries have been standardized. The general-purpose battery specifications include standard sizes such as AA, AAA, C, D, and 9V. There are also button-type lithium batteries such as CR2016, CR1616, CR2430, CR2025, CR1620, CR2450, CR2032, CR1632, CR2477, and lithium batteries with special specifications such as 28L, CR2, CR123, and 245.

Duracell is currently the most important battery manufacturer

There are many battery brands on the market. From the perspective of market share and popularity, Duracell is undoubtedly the most important battery brand and manufacturer at present. The story of Duracell begins in 1920 with an innovative scientist named Samuel Ruben and an aggressive tungsten wire manufacturer named Philip Rogers Mallory who co-founded PR Mallory company, laid the cornerstone of Duracell company. Duracell’s first alkaline batteries were created during the Mallory brand, these new generation batteries were originally designed for Kodak’s power-hungry built-in flash cameras until 1965, the Duracell brand Officially launched on the market, its batteries are directly supplied to many professional camera manufacturers, as well as used in some portable devices, such as recorders and walkie-talkies.

In 1971, Duracell began to use its signature copper black, two colors that represent conductivity, strength, and a premium battery formulation. Duracell was the first battery brand to advertise on TV and quickly became a household name. In 1973, the Duracell Bunny was born, and since then the Bunny has become a symbol of the Duracell’s longer-lasting power compared to other ordinary carbon-zinc batteries. In 2016, Berkshire Hathaway acquired Duracell and became a permanent Berkshire subsidiary.

In 2018, Duracell invested in a new B2B area of ​​expertise to help device makers supply high-quality batteries for everything from smart homes to medical. By 2020, Duracell will launch a dual-formula battery combination to the Asian professional market – PROCELL low current discharge battery and PROCELL Intense high current discharge battery, PROCELL low current discharge battery is mainly used for small batteries. Low-current devices that last for a long time, PROCELL Intense high-current discharge batteries, are used to operate motors, pumps and other high-current devices that generate driving force.

High consistency and high quality recognized by the market

Duracell’s battery products can be affirmed by the market and users, mainly due to its pursuit of quality consistency and reliability. Duracell’s continuous investment in manufacturing enables it to have higher consistency and high quality. Extends battery life and provides consistent battery performance.

For example, Duracell uses strong closure materials, thinner isolation layers, and proprietary zinc materials on alkaline batteries to provide stable power over the battery’s service life. Duracell uses a mesh screen on the button-type lithium battery to make the contact of the cathode better, which can provide lower impedance for better performance. Compared with competing products, the cathode position is inconsistent, resulting in lower utilization and poor performance. This poor cathode can manufacturing technology will produce higher impedance, especially in high current applications, its performance poor performance.

Duracell is also optimized for IoT device designs, as new technologies and devices are heavily battery-operated, positively influencing the demand for primary lithium batteries. Taking the CR123 coin-type lithium battery as an example, Duracell has optimized the design of the CR123 to provide about 40% better low-pulse load discharge than its main competitors on IoT devices using the discharge type (reproducing periodic data). transmission), major competitors suffer from the lithium anode cut-off effect, causing devices to stop working prematurely.

High-quality batteries for IoT device needs

In order to meet the wireless connection requirements of IoT devices, the PROCELL battery series launched by Duracell includes various standard size alkaline batteries, special size special alkaline batteries, as well as various sizes of lithium batteries, and application Rechargeable battery on request.

Take the wireless smart thermostat as an example, it can measure temperature and detect the occupancy of people. The thermostat can maximize the temperature comfort within the coverage area. Usually, a Wi-Fi smart thermostat can be connected to multiple temperature sensors. At this time, pulse high current discharge is mainly used. At this time, it is suitable to use Duracell CR2477 button-type lithium battery.

In IoT smart home security applications, such as control panels, wireless switches and other products in smart home controllers, CR2450, CR2032 button-type lithium batteries are suitable. In security application products such as detectors, AA, AAA, 9V, PROCELL core AA, CR123 batteries are suitable. In the contact sensors and door and window sensors used in alarm applications, CR2032, CR2025, CR1632, CR2477 button type are suitable. lithium battery.

In other smart products, such as cabinet door locks, rolling shutter doors, electronic locks and other smart door lock applications, CR123, CR2450, CR2032, 9V, AA batteries are suitable. In addition, for some non-contact sanitary ware, such as disinfection sprayer, paper towel dispenser, air filter, etc., it is suitable to use CR2032, CR2025, AA, D batteries, measuring pens in industrial instruments, laser distance meters, electronic scales, etc. Products, it is suitable for AA, AAA, 9V batteries. Duracell’s professional PROCELL battery series products will be able to meet the battery needs of various smart products.


Thanks to the rapid development of low-power connection technology, the application of batteries in smart IoT products is becoming more and more common. Therefore, choosing a professional and high-quality battery will help the device to operate stably and reduce the frequency of battery replacement. Duracell’s PROCELL battery series can meet the needs of a variety of IoT devices, and will be the best partner for these smart products.

The Links:   CM50MXB2-24A SP14N003

Vishay Introduces World-Leading Automotive-Grade 80 VP-Channel MOSFETs to Improve System Efficiency and Power Density

MALVERN, Pa. — April 7, 2021 — Vishay Intertechnology, Inc. (NYSE: VSH) today introduced the SQJA81EP, the world’s most advanced p-channel 80 V TrenchFET® MOSFET qualified to AEC-Q101. The new Vishay Siliconix SQJA81EP has an excellent 80 V p-channel on-resistance for improved power density and energy efficiency in automotive applications. The SQJA81EP is housed in a small 5.13 mm x 6.15 mm PowerPAK® SO-8L monolithic package with a Eurowing lead structure, with a maximum on-resistance of only 17.3 mW / typ. 14.3 mW at 10 V.

The recently released automotive-grade MOSFETs have 28 % lower on-resistance than the closest DPAK-packaged competitor, 31 % lower than previous-generation solutions, and a 50 % smaller footprint, helping to reduce on-power dissipation and save energy , while increasing the power density to improve the output. The excellent gate charge of the SQJA81EP is only 52 nC at 10 V, reducing gate drive losses, and the product of gate charge and on-resistance, the MOSFET figure of merit (FOM) for power conversion applications, is at an industry-leading level.

The device operates at high temperatures of +175 °C and meets the ruggedness and reliability requirements of automotive applications such as reverse polarity protection, battery management, high-side load switching, and LED lighting. In addition, the SQJA81EP gull-wing lead structure also helps improve automatic optical inspection (AOI) capabilities, eliminate mechanical stress, and improve board-level reliability.

The device’s 80 V voltage rating meets the safety margins required for many common input voltage rails in 12 V, 24 V, and 48 V systems. MOSFETs increase power density, thereby reducing the number of components that need to be paralleled and saving PCB space. In addition, as a p-channel device, the SQJA81EP simplifies gate drive design, eliminating the need to configure the charge pump required for n-channel devices. The MOSFETs are packaged in lead (Pb) free, halogen free, RoHS compliant, 100 % Rg and UIS tested.

Samples and production quantities of the SQJA81EP are available now, with lead times of 14 weeks.

Introduction to VISHAY

Vishay is one of the world’s largest manufacturers of a family of discrete semiconductor and passive Electronic components critical to innovative designs in the automotive, industrial, computing, consumer, communications, defense, aerospace and medical markets. Serving global customers, Vishay carries the DNA of techÔ. Vishay Intertechnology, Inc. is a Fortune 1,000 company listed on the New York Stock Exchange (VSH).

The Links:   VUO50-08NO3 AA104VB04